Clinical Research

Clinical Practice

Ruiz A, Daniels K, Barner J, Carson J, Frei C. Effectiveness of Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Observational Cohort Study. BMC Women’s Health, 2011; 11(1).
Schwartz E, Holtorf K, Brownstein D. The Truth About Hormone Therapy. The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2009: A17.
Klaiber E, Vogel W, Rako S.  A critique of the Women’s Health Initiative hormone therapy study. Fertility and Sterility, 2005; 84(6):1589-1601.


Fait T.  Menopause hormone therapy: latest developments and clinical practice.  Drugs Context, 2019; 8:212551.
Thompson JJ, Ritenbaugh C, Nichter M.  Why women choose compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: lessons from a qualitative study of menopausal decision-making.  BMC Womens Health, 2017;17(1):97.
Rech CM, Clapauch R, de Souza Md, Bouskela E.  Low testosterone levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in oophorectomized early postmenopausal women.  Eur J Endocrinol, 2016; 174(3):297-306.
Marjoribanks J, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Lethaby A.  Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012; (7):CD004143.
Ettinger B, Friedman G, Bush T, QusenberryJr C. Reduced Mortality Associated With Long-Term Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1996; 87(1):6-12.

Gava G, Orsili I, Alvisi S, Mancini I, Seracchioli R, Meriggiola MC. Cognition, Mood and Sleep in Menopausal Transition: The Role of Menopause Hormone Therapy. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Oct 1;55(10):668. doi: 10.3390/medicina55100668. PMID: 31581598; PMCID: PMC6843314.


Santoro N, Roeca C, Peters BA, Neal-Perry G. The Menopause Transition: Signs, Symptoms, and Management Options. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 1;106(1):1-15. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa764. PMID: 33095879.


Santoro N. Perimenopause: From Research to Practice. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Apr;25(4):332-9. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2015.5556. Epub 2015 Dec 10. PMID: 26653408; PMCID: PMC4834516.


Gordhandas S, Norquist BM, Pennington KP, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations; a systematic review of risks and benefits. Gynecol Oncol, 2019, pii: S0090-8258(18)31514-2.
Colditz G, Hankinson S, Hunter D, et al.  The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The Endocrinologist, 1995; 5(6):441-442.

Sexual Function

Zilio Rech CM, Clapauch R, Bouskela E.  Sexual Function Under Adequate Estrogen Therapy in Women After Oophorectomy Versus Natural Menopause.  J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2019:  doi: 10.1089/jwh.2017.6905
Kushnir VA, Darmon SK, Barad DH, Weghofer A, Gleicher N.  Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on sexual function in premenopausal infertile women.  Endocrine, 2018; doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1781-3.
Labrie F, Archer D, Bouchard C, et al.  Intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (prasterone), a highly efficient treatment of dyspareunia.  Climacteric, 2011; 14(2):282-288.


Gandhi J, Chen A, Dagur G, Suh Y, Smith N, Cali B, Khan SA. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an overview of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;215(6):704-711. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.045. Epub 2016 Jul 26. PMID: 27472999.


Marko KI, Simon JA. Androgen therapy for women after menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Dec;35(6):101592. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2021.101592. Epub 2021 Oct 12. PMID: 34674962.


Parish SJ, Hahn SR, Goldstein SW, Giraldi A, Kingsberg SA, Larkin L, Minkin MJ, Brown V, Christiansen K, Hartzell-Cushanick R, Kelly-Jones A, Rullo J, Sadovsky R, Faubion SS. The International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health Process of Care for the Identification of Sexual Concerns and Problems in Women. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 May;94(5):842-856. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.009. Epub 2019 Apr 4. PMID: 30954288.

Mood Disorders

Sbisa A, van den Buuse M, Gogos A.  The effect of estrogenic compounds on psychosis-like behaviour in female rats.  PLoS One, 2018;13(3):e0193853.
Del Río JP, Alliende MI, Molina N et al. Steroid Hormones and Their Action in Women’s Brains: The Importance of Hormonal Balance.  Front Public Health, 2018; 6:141.
Kulkarni J.  Perimenopausal depression – an under-recognised entity. Aust Prescr, 2018; 41(6):183-185.
Ruiz AD, Daniels KR, Barner JC, Carson JJ, Frei CR.  Effectiveness of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy: an observational cohort study.  BMC Womens Health, 2011; 11:27.
Graziottin A, Serafini A.  Depression and the menopause: why antidepressants are not enough? Menopause Int, 2009; 15(2):76-81.


Barad D, Gleicher N.  Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on oocyte and embryo yields, embryo grade and cell number in IVF. Human Reproduction, 2006; 21(11):2845-2849.

Barad D, Gleicher N. Increased oocyte production after treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone. Fertility and Sterility, 2005; 84(3):756.e1-756.e3.

Metabolism and Obesity

Villareal D, Holloszy J. Effect of DHEA on Abdominal Fat and Insulin Action in Elderly Women and Men. JAMA, 2004; 292(18):2243.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Carroll JC, Rosario ER.  The potential use of hormone-based therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.  Curr Alzheimer Res, 2012; 9(1):18-34.
Pike CJ, Carroll JC, Rosario ER, Barron AM.  Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease. Front Neuroendocrinol, 2009; 30(2):239-58.

Cardiovascular Disease

Schierbeck L, Rejnmark L, Tofteng C, et al. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial. BMJ,  2012; 345(9):e6409-e6409.
Nabel E. Coronary Heart Disease in Women — An Ounce of Prevention. New England Journal of Medicine, 2000; 343(8):572-574.

 Eye Disease

Anderson G.  Hormone Replacement Therapy May Protect Against Eye Disease. American Academy of Ophthalmology website. November 13, 2017. Accessed January 24, 2019.


Jankowski C, Gozansky W, Kittelson J, et al. Increases in Bone Mineral Density in Response to Oral Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement in Older Adults Appear to Be Mediated by Serum Estrogens. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2008; 93(12):4767- 4773.


Artero-Morales M, González-Rodríguez S, Ferrer-Montiel A.  TRP Channels as Potential Targets for Sex-Related Differences in Migraine Pain.  Front Mol Biosci, 2018; 5:73.


Inflammatory Properties

Collomp K, Gravisse N, Vibarel-Rebot N.  Neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to DHEA administration in young healthy women.  Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2018;175:19-23.

Clinical Practice

Loria K. Polycythemia risk evaluated in patients on TRT pellets. Urology Times website.,1. December 06, 2016. Accessed January 24, 2019.
Schwartz E, Holtorf K, Brownstein D. The Truth About Hormone Therapy. The Wall Street Journal, March 06, 2016:A17.
Morley J. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review.  Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 2009; 5:427-448.

Metabolic Syndrome

Rubinow KB. Estrogens and Body Weight Regulation in Men.  Adv Exp Med Biol, 2017; 1043:285-313.
Kelly D, Jones T. Testosterone: a metabolic hormone in health and disease. Journal of Endocrinology, 2013; 217(3):R25-R45.
Muraleedharan V, Hugh Jones T. Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome.  Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab, 2013; 1(5):207–223.


Haider A, Haider K, Saad F, Hanefeld M. Remission of type 2 diabetes and pleiotropic effects of long-term testosterone treatment for “late-onset” hypogonadism: A case report.  SAGE Open Med Case Rep, 2019; 7:2050313X18823454.

Magnussen LV, Hvid LG, Hermann AP, et al. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabetes-a randomized controlled trial.  Andrology, 2017; 5(5):946-953.

Muraleedharan V, Marsh H, Kapoor D, Channer K, Jones T. Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risk of mortality and testosterone replacement improves survival in men with type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Endocrinology, 2013; 169(6):725-733.


Comhaire F. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity. Andrologia, 2015; 48(1): 65-68.
Shores M, Smith N, Forsberg C, Anawalt B, Matsumoto A.  Testosterone Treatment and Mortality in Men with Low Testosterone Levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2012; 97(6):2050-2058.
Laughlin G, Barrett-Connor E, Bergstrom J. Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality in Older Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2008; 93(1):68-75.


Roddam A, Allen N, Appleby P, Key T. Endogenous Sex Hormones and Prostate Cancer: A Collaborative Analysis of 18 Prospective Studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2008; 100(3):170-183.


Villareal D, Holloszy J.  Effect of DHEA on Abdominal Fat and Insulin Action in Elderly Women and Men. JAMA, 2004; 292(18):2243.
Oberbeck R, Dahlweid M, Koch R, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases mortality rate and improves cellular immune function during polymicrobial sepsis. Critical Care Medicine, 2001; 29(2):380-384.
Wolkowitz O, Reus V, Keebler A, Nelson N, Friedland M. Double-Blind Treatment of Major Depression with Dehydroepiandrosterone. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1999; 156(4):646-649.


Comhaire F.  Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.  Andrologia, 2016; 48(1):65-8.
Frederiksen L, Højlund K, Hougaard DM, Brixen K, Andersen M.  Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men.  Age (Dordr), 2012; 34(1):145-56.

Sexual Function

Corona G, Rastrelli G, Morgentaler A, et al. Meta-analysis of Results of Testosterone Therapy on Sexual Function Based on International Index of Erectile Function Scores.  Eur Urol, 2017; 72(6):1000-1011.



Recovery Otzel DM, Lee J, Ye F, Borst SE, Yarrow JF.  Activity-Based Physical Rehabilitation with Adjuvant Testosterone to Promote Neuromuscular Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.  Int J Mol Sci, 2018;19(6).


Sumii K, Miyake H, Enatsu N, Matsushita K, Fujisawa M.  Prospective assessment of health-related quality of life in men with late-onset hypogonadism who received testosterone replacement therapy.  Andrologia, 2016; 48(2):198-202.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Pike CJ, Carroll JC, Rosario ER, Barron AM.  Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease.  Front Neuroendocrinol, 2009; 30(2):239-58.


Traish A, Bolanos J, Nair S, Saad F , Morgentaler A.  Do Androgens Modulate the Pathophysiological Pathways of Inflammation? Appraising the Contemporary Evidence.  J Clin Med, 2018; 7(12). pii: E549.

Sexual Function and Relationships

Kreuder AK, Wassermann L, Wollseifer M, et al. Oxytocin enhances the pain-relieving effects of social support in romantic couples.  Hum Brain Mapp, 2019; 40(1):242-251.
Scheele D, Wille A, Kendrick K, et al. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; 110(50):20308-20313.
Schneiderman I, Zagoory-Sharon O, Leckman JF, Feldman R.  Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity.  Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2012; 37(8):1277-85
Magon N, Sanjay K. The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011; 15(7):156.
Burri A, Heinrichs M, Schedlowski M, Kruger TH. The Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2008; 33(5):591-600.
Kiss A, Mikkelsen JD. Oxytocin–anatomy and functional assignments: a minireview. Endocr Regul, 2005; 39(3):97-105.
Gimpl G, Fahrenholz F. The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Physiol Rev, 2001; 81(2):629-83.
Liedtke R. Hormone involved in reproduction may have role in the maintenance of relationships. BLTC Research. website. July 14, 1999. Accessed Janurary 24, 2019.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Flanagan JC, Hand A, Jarnecke AM, et al.  Effects of oxytocin on working memory and executive control system connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, 2018; 26(4):391-402.
Olff M, Koch S, Nawijn L, et al. Social support, oxytocin, and PTSD.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2014; 5:26513.

Mood Disorders

De Cagna F, Fusar-Poli L, Damiani S, et al. The Role of Intranasal Oxytocin in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.  Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci, 2019; 17(1):1-11.
Bertsch K, Herpertz SC.  Oxytocin and Borderline Personality Disorder.  Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:499-514.
Bosch OJ, Young LJ.  Oxytocin and Social Relationships: From Attachment to Bond Disruption.  Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:97-117.
Grace SA, Rossell SL, Heinrichs M, Kordsachia C, Labuschagne I.Oxytocin and brain activity in humans: A systematic review and coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.  Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2018; 96:6-24.
Kendrick KM, Guastella AJ, Becker B.  Overview of Human Oxytocin Research.  Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2018; 35:321-348.
Jones C, Barrera I, Brothers S, Ring R, Wahlestedt C.  Oxytocin and social functioning.  Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 2017; 19(2):193-201.
Sippel LM, Allington CE, Pietrzak RH, et al. Oxytocin and Stress-related Disorders: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment Opportunities.  Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks), 2017;1.
Feeser M, Fan Y, Weigand A, et al. Oxytocin improves mentalizing – pronounced effects for individuals with attenuated ability to empathize.  Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2015; 53:223-32.
Herpertz S, Bertsch K. A New Perspective on the Pathophysiology of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Model of the Role of Oxytocin. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015; 172(9), pp.840-851.
McQuaid R, McInnis O, Abizaid A, Anisman H. Making room for oxytocin in understanding depression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2014; 45, pp.305-322.
Bertsch K, Gamer M, Schmidt B, et al. Oxytocin and Reduction of Social Threat Hypersensitivity in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013; 170(10):1169-1177.
Domes G, Heinrichs M, Gläscher J, et al. Oxytocin Attenuates Amygdala Responses to Emotional Faces Regardless of Valence. Biological Psychiatry, 2007; 62(10):1187- 1190.

Weight Loss and Obesity

Ding C, Leow MK, Magkos F.  Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management.  Obes Rev, 2019; 20(1):22-40.
Spetter MS, Hallschmid M.  Current findings on the role of oxytocin in the regulation of food intake.  Physiol Behav, 2017; 176:31-39.
Olszewski PK, Klockars A, Levine AS.  Oxytocin and potential benefits for obesity treatment.  Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2017; 24(5):320-325.
Lawson EA.  The effects of oxytocin on eating behaviour and metabolism in humans.  Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2017; 13(12):700-709.
Altirriba J, Pataky Z, Golay A, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Oxytocin: metabolic effects and potential use for obesity treatment. Rev Med Suisse, 2015; 14(11):97-100.
Cai D, and Purkayastha S.  A new horizon: oxytocin as a novel therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, 2013; 10(1-2):e63-e68.
Blevins J, Ho J.  Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2013; 14(4):311-329.


Auyeung B, Lombardo M, Heinrichs M, et al. Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism. Translational Psychiatry, 2015; 5(2):507.
Li H, Shan L, Du L, Jay F.  Research advances in the management of autism spectrum disorders in children. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 2015; 17(8):886-92.
Hollander E, Bartz J, Chaplin W, et al. Oxytocin Increases Retention of Social Cognition in AutismBiological Psychiatry, 2007; 61(4):498-503.


Nielsen S, Gowing L, Sabioni P, Le Foll B.  Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019; 1:CD008940.
Zhou L, Sun W, Young A, et al.  Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function.  International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2014; 18(1):1093.
Rehme M, Hillemacher T, Heberlein A. Comment on “Intranasal Oxytocin Blocks Alcohol Withdrawal in Human Subjects” by Pedersen and Colleagues. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2013; 37(5):720-721.
McGregor I, Bowen M.  Breaking the loop: Oxytocin as a potential treatment for drug addiction. Hormones and Behavior, 2012; 61(3):331-339.


Taylor A, Lee H, Buisman-Pijlman F. Oxytocin treatment in pediatric populations.  Frontiers in Behavioral. Neuroscience, 2014; 8:360.


Kreuder AK, Wassermann L, Wollseifer M, et al. Oxytocin enhances the pain-relieving effects of social support in romantic couples.  Hum Brain Mapp, 2019; 40(1):242-251.
Tracy L, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Gibson S, Giummarra M. Oxytocin and the modulation of pain experience: Implications for chronic pain management. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2015; 55:53-67.
Rash J, Aguirre-Camacho A, Campbell T. Oxytocin and Pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2013; 30:453-462.

Vaginal Atrophy

Kallak TK, Uvnäs-Moberg K.  Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.  Post Reprod Health, 2017; 23(1):6-12.
Al-Saqi SH, Jonasson AF, Naessén T, Uvnäs-Moberg K.  Oxytocin improves cytological and histological profiles of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.  Post Reprod Health, 2016; 22(1):25-33.
Al-Saqi SH, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Jonasson AF.  Intravaginally applied oxytocin improves post-menopausal vaginal atrophy.  Post Reprod Health, 2015; 21(3):88-97.
Jonasson A, Edwall L, Uvnas-Moberg K. Topical oxytocin reverses vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized pilot study. Menopause International, 2011; 17(4):120-125.

Clinical Practice

Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ.  Intermittent blockade of OGFr and treatment of autoimmune disorders.  Exp Biol Med (Maywood),2018:1535370218817746. doi: 10.1177/1535370218817746.
Toljan K, Vrooman B.  Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN)-Review of Therapeutic Utilization.  Med Sci (Basel), 2018;6(4).
Li Z, You Y, Griffin N, Feng J, Shan F. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN): A promising treatment in immune-related diseases and cancer therapy. Int Immunopharmacol,2018;61:178-184.
Brown N, Panksepp J.  Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life.  Med Hypotheses, 2009; 72(3):333-337

Multiple Sclerosis

Ludwig MD, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ.  Featured Article: Serum [Met5]-enkephalin levels are reduced in multiple sclerosis and restored by low-dose naltrexone.  Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2017; 242(15):1524-1533.
Ludwig MD, Turel AP, Zagon IS, Mc Laughlin PJ. Long-term treatment with low dose naltrexone maintains stable health in patients with multiple sclerosis.  Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin, 2016; 2:2055217316672242.
Turel AP, Oh KH, Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ.  Low Dose Naltrexone for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Retrospective Chart Review of Safety and Tolerability.  J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2015; 35(5):609-611.
Frech T, Novak K, Revelo M, et al. Low-Dose Naltrexone for Pruritus in Systemic Sclerosis. International Journal of Rheumatology, 2011; 2011:1-5.
Cree BA, Kornyeyeva E, Goodin DS.  Pilot trial of low-dose naltrexone and quality of life in multiple sclerosis.  Ann Neurol, 2010; 68(2):145-150.
Zagon IS, Rahn KA, Turel AP, McLaughlin PJ.  Endogenous opioids regulate expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a new paradigm for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.  Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2009 ; 234(11):1383-1392.
Gironi M, Martinelli-Boneschi F, Sacerdote P, et al. A pilot trial of low-dose naltrexone in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 2008; 14(8):1076-1083.

Crohn’s Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Lie MRKL, van der Giessen J, Fuhler GM, et al.  Low dose Naltrexone for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease patients.  J Transl Med, 2018; 16(1):55.
Roginsky G, Alexoff A, Ehrenpreis ED.  Initial Findings of an Open-Label Trial of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Symptomatic Mesenteric Panniculitis.  J Clin Gastroenterol, 2015; 49(9):794-795.
Segal D, John K,  Macdonald J,  Nilesh C. Low Dose Naltrexone for Induction of Remission in   Crohn’s Disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014; (2):CD010410.
Smith J, Field D, Bingaman S, Evans R,  Mauger D.  Safety and Tolerability of Low-dose Naltrexone Therapy in Children With Moderate to Severe Crohn’s Disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 2013; 47(4):339-345.
Smith JP, Field D, Bingaman SI, Evans R, Mauger DT.  Safety and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone therapy in children with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease: a pilot study.  J Clin Gastroenterol, 2013; 47(4):339-345.
Shannon A, Alkhouri N, Mayacy S, Kaplan B, Mahajan L.  Low-dose naltrexone for treatment of duodenal Crohn’s disease in a pediatric patient.  Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010 Sep;16(9):1457.
Lichtenstein G, Hanauer S, Sandborn W. Management of Crohn’s Disease in Adults. Am J Gastroenterol, 2009; 104(2):465-483.
Smith J, Stock H, Bingaman S, et al. Low-Dose Naltrexone Therapy Improves Active Crohn’s Disease. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2007; 102(4):820-828.


Woeller, K. Autism – The Benefits of Low Dose Naltrexone. Biomedical Autism Intervention. website. January 09, 2009. Accessed January 24, 2019.
Bouvard M, Leboyer M, Launay J, et al.  Low-dose naltrexone effects on plasma chemistries and clinical symptoms in autism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Psychiatry Research, 1995; 58(3):191-201.
Ing B, Au D, Poland R. Low-Dose Naltrexone Inhibits Pemoline-Induced Self-Biting Behavior in Prepubertal Rats. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 1993; 3(2):71-79.
Campbell M, Anderson L, Small, A, et al. Naltrexone in Autistic Children: Behavioral Symptoms and Attentional Learning. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993; 32(6):1283-1291.
Sandman C. The Opiate Hypothesis in Autism and Self-Injury. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 1990; 1(3):237-248.
Campbell M, Overall J, Small A, et al. Naltrexone in Autistic Children: An Acute Open Dose Range Tolerance Trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1989; 28(2):200-2006.


Abdel T, Oumar T, Sounkalo D, et al.  Impact of low dose naltrexone (LDN) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated HIV+ adults in Mali: A single blind randomized clinical trial.  Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, 2011; 3(10):189-198.


Miskoff JA, Chaudhri M. Low Dose Naltrexone and Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Discussion.  Cureus, 2018; 10(7):e2924.
Meng J, Meng Y, Plotnikoff NP, et al. Low dose naltrexone (LDN) enhances maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs).  Int Immunopharmacol, 2013; 17(4):1084-1089.
Donahue R, McLaughlin P, Zagon I. Low-dose naltrexone suppresses ovarian cancer and exhibits enhanced inhibition in combination with cisplatin. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2011; 236(7):883-895.


Cote B, Ross B, Fortner J, Rao D.  The Use and Utility of Low-dose Naltrexone Capsules for Patients with Fibromyalgia.  Int J Pharm Compd, 2018; 22(3):252-256.
Metyas S, Chen CL, Yeter K, Solyman J, Arkfeld DG. Low Dose Naltrexone in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia.  Curr Rheumatol Rev, 2018;14(2):177-180.
Ramanathan S, Panksepp J, Johnson B.  Is fibromyalgia an endocrine/endorphin deficit disorder? Is low dose naltrexone a new treatment option?  Psychosomatics,2012; 53(6):591-594.
Younger J, Mackey S. Fibromyalgia Symptoms Are Reduced by Low-Dose Naltrexone: A Pilot Study. Pain Med, 2009; 10(4):663-672.


Bostick, K, McCarter A, Nykamp D.  The Use of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Chronic Pain.  The Senior Care Pharmacist, 2019; 34(1):43-46.
Pineda-Farias JB, Caram-Salas NL, Salinas-Abarca AB, Ocampo J, Granados-Soto V. Ultra-Low Doses of Naltrexone Enhance the Antiallodynic Effect of Pregabalin or Gabapentin in Neuropathic Rats.  Drug Dev Res, 2017; 78(8):371-380.
Hota D, Srinivasan A, Dutta P, Bhansali A, Chakrabarti A.  Off-Label, Low-Dose Naltrexone for Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.  Pain Med, 2016; 17(4):790-791.
Sturn KM, Collin M.  Low-Dose Naltrexone: A New Therapy Option for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Patients.  Int J Pharm Compd, 2016; 20(3):197-201.
Ghai B, Bansal D, Hota D, Shah CS.  Off-label, low-dose naltrexone for refractory chronic low back pain.  Pain Med, 2014; 15(5):883-884.
Younger J, Parkitny L,  McLain D. The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) as a novel anti- inflammatory treatment for chronic pain. Clin Rheumatol, 2014; 33(4):451-459.
Chopra P, Cooper M.  Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Using Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN). Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2013; 8(3):470-476.
Largent-Milnes TM, Guo W, Wang HY, Burns LH, Vanderah TW. Oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone attenuates neuropathic pain and associated mu-opioid receptor-Gs coupling.  J Pain, 2008; 9(8):700-713.
Neal Mehta, MD discusses low dose naltrexone(LDN) He shares the benefits of LDN and how the drug can help patients manage chronic pain and autoimmune diseases.


Mannelli P, Peindl K, Wu LT, Patkar AA, Gorelick DA.  The combination very low-dose naltrexone-clonidine in the management of opioid withdrawal.  Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2012;38(3):200-205.
Mannelli P, Patkar AA, Peindl K, et al.  Early outcomes following low dose naltrexone enhancement of opioid detoxification.  Am J Addict, 2009;18(2):109-116.
Webster LR.  Oxytrex: an oxycodone and ultra-low-dose naltrexone formulation.  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2007; (8):1277-83.
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)
and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)

Mood Disorders

Pape W, Wöller W. Low dose naltrexone in the treatment of dissociative symptoms. Nervenarzt, 2015; 86(3):346-351.


Bridgman AC, Kirchhof MG.  Treatment of psoriasis vulgaris using low-dose naltrexone. JAAD Case Rep, 2018; 4(8):827-829.
Lee B, Elston D.  The Uses of Naltrexone in Dermatological Conditions.  J Am Acad Dermatol, 2018; (18)33104-9.
Ekelem C, Juhasz M, Khera P, Mesinkovska NA.  Utility of Naltrexone Treatment for Chronic Inflammatory Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review.   JAMA Dermatol, 2018; Doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4093.
Tran T, Chen A, Worswick S. Successful treatment of dermatomyositis with low-dose naltrexone.  Dermatol Ther, 2018; 31(6):e12720.
Muller G, Grieshaber R, Talley JF, Riepl M, Fellows D.Compounded Low-dose Naltrexone for the Treatment of Guttate Psoriasis: A Case Report.  Int J Pharm Compd, 2018; 22(4):270-278.
Atanaskova Mesinkovska N.  Emerging Unconventional Therapies for Alopecia Areata.  J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 2018;19(1):S32-S33.
Albers LN, Arbiser JL, Feldman RJ.Treatment of Hailey-Hailey Disease With Low-Dose Naltrexone. JAMA Dermatol, 2017; 153(10):1018-1020.

Ibrahim O, Hogan SR, Vij A, Fernandez AP. Low-Dose Naltrexone Treatment of Familial Benign Pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey Disease). JAMA Dermatol, 2017; 153(10):1015-1017.

Strazzulla LC, Avila L, Lo Sicco K, Shapiro J.  Novel Treatment Using Low-Dose Naltrexone for Lichen Planopilaris.  J Drugs Dermatol, 2017;16(11):1140-1142.

Diabetes mellitus

McLaughlin PJ, Cain JD, Titunick MB, Sassani JW, Zagon IS.  Topical Naltrexone Is a Safe and Effective Alternative to Standard Treatment of Diabetic Wounds.  Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle), 2017; 6(9):279-288.

Sassani JW, Mc Laughlin PJ, Zagon IS.  The Yin and Yang of the Opioid Growth Regulatory System: Focus on Diabetes-The Lorenz E. Zimmerman Tribute Lecture.  J Diabetes Res, 2016; 2016:9703729.
Hota D, Srinivasan A, Dutta P, Bhansali A, Chakrabarti A.  Off-Label, Low-Dose Naltrexone for Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.  Pain Med, 2016; 17(4):790-791.
McLaughlin PJ, Sassani JW, Klocek MS, Zagon IS.  Diabetic keratopathy and treatment by modulation of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis with naltrexone: a review.  Brain Res Bull, 2010; 81(2-3):236-47.

Clinical Practice

Toljan K, Vrooman B. Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN)-Review of Therapeutic Utilization. Med Sci (Basel). 2018 Sep 21;6(4):82. doi: 10.3390/medsci6040082. PMID: 30248938; PMCID: PMC6313374.

Chindalore VL, Craven RA, Yu KP, Butera PG, Burns LH, Friedmann N. Adding ultralow-dose naltrexone to oxycodone enhances and prolongs analgesia: a randomized, controlled trial of Oxytrex. J Pain. 2005 Jun;6(6):392-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2005.01.356. PMID: 15943961.

Webster LR, Butera PG, Moran LV, Wu N, Burns LH, Friedmann N. Oxytrex minimizes physical dependence while providing effective analgesia: a randomized controlled trial in low back pain. J Pain. 2006 Dec;7(12):937-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2006.05.005. PMID: 17157780.

Hay JL, La Vincente SF, Somogyi AA, Chapleo CB, White JM. Potentiation of buprenorphine antinociception with ultra-low dose naltrexone in healthy subjects. Eur J Pain. 2011 Mar;15(3):293-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.07.009. Epub 2010 Aug 21. PMID: 20728384.

Cruciani RA, Lussier D, Miller-Saultz D, Arbuck DM. Ultra-low dose oral naltrexone decreases side effects and potentiates the effect of methadone. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003 Jun;25(6):491-4. doi: 10.1016/s0885-3924(03)00139-8. PMID: 12782427.

Crain SM, Shen KF. Antagonists of excitatory opioid receptor functions enhance morphine’s analgesic potency and attenuate opioid tolerance/dependence liability. Pain. 2000 Feb;84(2-3):121-31. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3959(99)00223-7. PMID: 10666516.

Largent-Milnes TM, Guo W, Wang HY, Burns LH, Vanderah TW. Oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone attenuates neuropathic pain and associated mu-opioid receptor-Gs coupling. J Pain. 2008 Aug;9(8):700-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.03.005. Epub 2008 May 12. PMID: 18468954; PMCID: PMC5469510.

Neurodegenerative diseases

Mischley LK, Conley KE, Shankland EG, et al.  Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson’s disease.  NPJ Parkinsons Dis, 2016; 2:16002.
Saharan S, Mandal PK.  The emerging role of glutathione in Alzheimer’s disease.  J Alzheimers Dis, 2014; 40(3):519-29.
Cacciatore I, Baldassarre L, Fornasari E, Mollica A, Pinnen F.  Recent advances in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases based on GSH delivery systems.  Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2012; 2012:240146.

Alternative Oral Formulations

Buonocore D, Grosini M, Giardina S, et al. Bioavailability Study of an Innovative Orobuccal Formulation of Glutathione.  Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016; 2016:3286365.

Anti-aging properties

Homma T, Fujii J.  Application of Glutathione as Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Aging Drugs.  Curr Drug Metab, 2015; 16(7):560-71.


Weschawalit S, Thongthip S, Phutrakool P, Asawanonda P.  Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects.  Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol, 2017; 10:147-153.

Immune Function

Sinha R, Sinha I, Calcagnotto A, et al. Oral supplementation with liposomal glutathione elevates body stores of glutathione and markers of immune function.  Eur J Clin Nutr, 2018; 72(1):105-111.
Richie JP Jr, Nichenametla S, Neidig W, et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione.  Eur J Nutr, 2015; 54(2):251-63.
Kovacs-Nolan J, Rupa P, Matsui T, et al. In vitro and ex vivo uptake of glutathione (GSH) across the intestinal epithelium and fate of oral GSH after in vivo supplementation.  J Agric Food Chem, 2014; 62(39):9499-506.


Aoi W, Ogaya Y, Takami M, et al.   Glutathione supplementation suppresses muscle fatigue induced by prolonged exercise via improved aerobic metabolism.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2015; 12:7.


Kern J, Geier D, Adams J, Garver C, Audhya T, Geier M.  A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders. Med Sci Monit, 2011; 17(12): CR677–CR682.


Lean J, Davies J, Fuller K, et al. A crucial role for thiol antioxidants in estrogen-deficiency bone loss. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2003; 112(6):915-923.

Antiviral Therapy

Fraternale A, Brundu S, Magnani M.  Glutathione and glutathione derivatives in immunotherapy.  Biol Chem,  2017; 398(2):261-275.
Fraternale A, Schiavano GF, Paoletti MF, et al. Effect of the N-butanoyl glutathione (GSH) derivative and acyclovir on HSV-1 replication and Th1 cytokine expression in human macrophages.  Med Microbiol Immunol, 2014; 203(4):283-9.
Borges-Santos MD, Moreto F, Pereira PC, Ming-Yu Y, Burini RC.  Plasma glutathione of HIV⁺ patients responded positively and differently to dietary supplementation with cysteine or glutamine. Nutrition, 2012; 28(7-8):753-6.
Fraternale A, Paoletti MF, Casabianca A, et al.  GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy.  Mol Aspects Med, 2009; 30(1-2):99-110.
Fraternale A, Paoletti M, Casabianca A, et al. Inhibition of murine AIDS by pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules. Antiviral Research, 2008;  77(2):120-127.
Palamara AT, Brandi G, Rossi L, et al.  New synthetic glutathione derivatives with increased antiviral activities.  Antivir Chem Chemother, 2004; 15(2):83-91.
Vogel J, Cinatl J, Dauletbaev N, et al. Effects of S-acetylglutathione in cell and animal model of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Med Microbiol Immunol, 2003; 194(1-2):55-59.


Balendiran GK, Dabur R, Fraser D.  The role of glutathione in cancer.  Cell Biochem Funct, 2004; 22(6):343-52.
Locigno R, Pincemail J, Henno A, Treusch G, Castronovo V.  S-acetyl-glutathione selectively induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells through a GSH-independent mechanism. Int J Oncol, 2002; 20(1):6975.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Blanchemain N, Siepmann F, Siepmann J. Implants for drug substance delivery. Med Sci (Paris), 2017; 33(1):32-38.
McFarland J, Craig W, Clarke NJ, Spratt DI.  Serum Testosterone Concentrations Remain Stable Between Injections in Patients Receiving Subcutaneous Testosterone.  J Endocr Soc, 2017;1(8):1095-1103.
Glaser R, Kalantaridou S, Dimitrakakis C.  Testosterone implants in women: pharmacological dosing for physiologic effect. Maturitas, 2013; 74(2):179-84.
Pastuszak A, Mittakanti H, Liu J, et al. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation and Dosing of Subcutaneous Testosterone Pellets. Journal of Andrology, 2012; 33(5):927-937.
Kelleher S, Howe C, Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ.  Testosterone release rate and duration of action of testosterone pellet implants.  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2004; 60(4):420-8.
Cravioto M, Larrea F, Delgado N, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 25-mg estradiol implants in postmenopausal Mexican women. Menopause, 2001; 8(5):353-360.

Patient Adherence and Satisfaction

Piecuch MJ, Patel BG, Hakim L, Wang R, Sadeghi-Nejad H.  Testosterone Pellet Implantation Practices: A Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) Member Questionnaire.  J Sex Med, 2017; 14(1):47-49.
Spratt DI, Stewart II, Savage C, Craig W, Spack NP, Chandler DW, Spratt LV, Eimicke T, Olshan JS.  Subcutaneous Injection of Testosterone Is an Effective and Preferred Alternative to Intramuscular Injection: Demonstration in Female-to-Male Transgender Patients.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2017; 102(7):2349-2355.
Pastuszak AW, Gomez LP, Scovell JM, Khera M, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI.  Comparison of the Effects of Testosterone Gels, Injections, and Pellets on Serum Hormones, Erythrocytosis, Lipids, and Prostate-Specific Antigen.  Sex Med, 2015; 3(3):165-73.
Kovac JR, Rajanahally S, Smith RP, Coward RM, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI. Patient satisfaction with testosterone replacement therapies: the reasons behind the choices.  J Sex Med, 2014; 11(2):553-62.
McCullough A. A Review of Testosterone Pellets in the Treatment of Hypogonadism.  Curr Sex Health Rep, 2014;6(4):265-269.
Smith RP, Khanna A, Coward RM, Rajanahally S, Kovac JR, Gonzales MA, Lipshultz LI.  Factors influencing patient decisions to initiate and discontinue subcutaneous testosteronepellets 
(Testopel) for treatment of hypogonadism. J Sex Med, 2013;10(9):2326-33.


Britto R, Araújo L, Barbosa I, Silva L.  Improvement of the lipid profile in post menopausal women who use estradiol and testosterone implants. Gynecological Endocrinology, 2012; 28(10):767-769.
Studd J, Savvas M, Waston N, et al. The relationship between plasma estradiol and the increase in bone density in postmenopausal women after treatment with subcutaneous hormone implants. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1990; 163(5):1474-1479.
Stanczyk F, Shoupe D, Nunez V, et al. A randomized comparison of nonoral estradiol delivery in postmenopausal women.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988; 159(6):1540-1546.
Greenblatt R, Bryner J, Mahesh V, Asch R. Implantation of pure crystalline pellets of estradiol for conception control. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1977; 127(5):520-524.

Breast Cancer

Glaser RL, York AE, Dimitrakakis C. Efficacy of subcutaneous testosterone on menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32 Suppl 2:109.


Glaser R, Dimitrakakis C, Trimble N, Martin V.  Testosterone pellet implants and migraine headaches: a pilot study.  Maturitas, 2012; 71(4):385-8.